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Knowledge Base

As our add-on functions within Jira, it uses the same concepts of workload units as the environment it operates in. And as there is a variety of other Jira issues which are not Tasks, they have to be somehow represented on the Gantt chart. In this article we will learn what can be displayed on our application's Gantt chart, what is a Task in our app's terminology and what operations can be performed on these units.

What Can Be Synchronized?

Our plugin can easily recognize and synchronize and display the following entities:

  • Jira Issues
  • Other Jira Non-Issue concepts like: Versions, Components, Projects, Agile Sprints, Backlog
  • Artificial Tasks 

A Concept Of an Issue And a Task

In Atlassian's Jira related documentation we can find a following description of a Task: "A task is a unit of work contained within a story. ; In JIRA Agile, individual Tasks are represented as Sub-Task issues, and stories are represented as (parent) issues." As we can see a Jira task is just a one of the issues among the selection of other pre-defined issue types and these which can be custom-made by a Jira user. Following the above definition we can distinguish many types of Jira segments - issues and even concepts which are not defined as issues, like Versions, Components, Sprints etc.

Once again, as per Jira Knowledge Base: "JIRA can be used to track many different types of issues. The default types are listed below, but please note that your JIRA administrator may have customized this list to suit your organization.

  • Bug - A problem which impairs or prevents the functions of the product.
  • Improvement - An enhancement to an existing feature.
  • New Feature - A new feature of the product.
  • Task - A task that needs to be done.
  • Custom Issue - A custom issue type, as defined by your organization if required.

All the above are integrated part of our Jira Projects. If the Gantt chart represents a project in form of diagram of tasks on a timeline, then it has to manifest different concepts of Jira issues on its timeline as tasks... And it does. Almost every single piece of information which Jira defines  on the Gantt chart can be represented in a form of a Task in our app's definition. If the structure which we maintain is broad, then tasks (in Jira terminology) will usually (not always) be Sub-Tasks - children to parent tasks which in reality are: Epics, Stories or even whole Jira Projects! 

A concept of an Artificial Task

Now this is new! What are Artificial Tasks? They are nothing more but tasks added to the app's - Gantt chart (and columns of Gantt's WBS Waterfall Panel) yet not reflected in Jira whatsoever. They can perfectly coexist with Jira issues presented on our Gantt chart and on Gantt's WBS like the rest of Jira's native tasks and go under the same set of rules (including linking, sorting etc.). We can create and set Artificial Tasks to be visualized as a regular Tasks or application's Sub-Tasks. 

Artificial Tasks can be arranged into Templates in the Program Configuration panel. They make great placeholders, temporary tasks and are useful in many other scenarios. Our Program cloning mechanism uses them to replace Non-Issue Jira entities (like Components, Versions, Projects) which it is unable to recreate in Jira while building a new Program.

Creating Data Content: Tasks and Sub-Tasks

It is possible to create standard Jira issues from the app itself. Depending on the selected option, Task can be recorded as a standard Jira Issue or Sub-Task Jira Issue. Our application gives us the flexibility to even create a task that is dependent (as a child) in Gantt Chart, but in Jira it is recorded as a standard issue.

We can add tasks to our Jira Project and BigGantt / BigPicture Program by selecting '+ Task' drop-down menu. The first thing that hits us right after accessing this menu is possibility to either Create a task or a Sub-Task. Now here's the trick as few different task types can be created.

Creating Tasks

If we decide to add a Task with no Start and / or End Dates, the app will pick the Original Estimate value as its default and place it starting from today, unless of course, its creation took place in the past, in which case, the creation date will be used. Following this logic, if no Original Estimate value is present, the app shall treat the creation date for Start Date and when the End Date is empty, then it picks the resolution date (if the issue was Resolved) instead. This usually means that a Task will be set as a 1-day Task for today unless the Task was resolved a while ago and just recently imported into our application. With Original Estimate mapped as the Start or End Dates, it will represent the duration of a Task. For example, a Task starting on the 1st with 7 days of Original Estimate will end on the 7th. Likewise, a Task ending on the 5th with Original Estimate of 6 will always start on the 1st day of a given month.

What sorts of tasks can be created then?

  • JIRA Task - This will open Jira's 'Create Issue' dialog box that will allow us to enter series of values. Only fields marked with a red asterisk (i.e. Project, Issue Type, etc.) are mandatory. Other fields are optional and can be left blank. Once we click on the 'Create' button the task will be automatically added to the Gantt chart, a Gantt's WBS, and most importantly - to Jira itself.
  • Artificial Task - Will bring up a pop-up window with issue's Summary, Start and End Dates. Filling out these fields, followed by pressing the 'Save' button will automatically allocate the Artificial Task on the Gantt chart and on the Gantt WBS, yet will not affect our Jira instance.
  • Task Template - This feature will return us to the Task Template Creation menu in the Program Configuration.

Creating Sub-Task

Every time we'd like to create a Sub-Task, we have to highlight it by clicking on its potential Parent Task on the Gantt's WBS and depending on the type of Task which we click on, then we will be able to create the following:

  • Gantt Sub-Task - This will open Jira's 'Create Issue' dialog box that will allow us to enter series of values. Only fields marked with a red asterisk (i.e. Project, Issue Type, etc.) are mandatory. Other fields are optional and can be left blank. Once we click on the 'Create' button the task will be automatically added to the Gantt chart and a Gantt's WBS as a Sub-Task, and to Jira environment as a regular task.
  • Jira Sub-Task - This will open Jira's 'Create Issue' dialog box that will allow us to enter series of values. Only fields marked with a red asterisk (i.e. Project, Issue Type, etc.) are mandatory. Other fields are optional and can be left blank. Once we click on the 'Create' button the task will be automatically added to the Gantt chart and a Gantt's WBS as a task, and to Jira environment as a Sub-Task to another issue.
  • Artificial Sub-Task - Will bring up a pop-up window with issue's Summary, Start and End Dates. Filling out these fields and pressing 'Save' button will automatically allocate the Artificial Task on the Gantt chart and on the Gantt's WBS as a Sub-Task to another task, yet will not affect our Jira instance.

In case of Jira Sub-Task it is worth mentioning, that the Issue on which we click has to be capable of having a Sub-Task (meaning - it cannot be a Sub-Task itself).

Linking Tasks

We have already mentioned task based relationships, their link synchronization and types of links dedicated to our module in our article dedicated to the Gantt Configuration. But how do they really work? How do we put the knowledge to practice?

One on the Gantt charts timeline, when we highlight a desired task, small circles to the left and right side of that task will appear. Dragging to the circle of another task and dropping it there will create a dependency between these two tasks. Once the link is created, it will be reflected in Jira (and the other way around - link created in Jira will be displayed on the Gantt chart).

We can only perform a single drag and drop operation at a time, and each task (the one we start at and the one we end at) has two sides. This means there are four kinds of visual links (in a form of an arrow).

Every task on the Gantt chart has two significant sides - to the left and to the right. These symbolize the Start and End Dates. Therefore, by linking two tasks (below referred to as the Task A and Task B) we can expect four possible combinations:

  • Start-Start
    This means that when Task A starts, Task B will also start.

When two tasks are connected this way and task A is moved to the left, task B remains unchanged. When Task A is moved right and exceeds the Start Date of Task B, then Task B will also be moved to the right in order to start at the same time as Task A.

When Task B is moved to the left, it will never go further than the start date of Task A. If Task B is moved right, Task A remains unchanged.

  • Start-End
    When Task A starts, Task B will immediately finish.

In this type of dependency, when Task A is moved to the right, if its Start Date exceeds the End Date of Task B, B will be also moved right. Moving Task A to the left changes nothing.

  • End-Start
    When Task A finishes, then Task B starts.

Moving Task A to the right will also move Task B, as long as Task A's End Date is moved up to or ahead of Task B's Start Date. Moving Task A to the left has no effect on Task B. When Task B is moved to the left, it will not go further than Task A's End Date. Moving it to the right has no effect on Task A.

  • End-End
    When Task A ends, Task B also immediately ends.

Moving Task A to the left changes nothing. However, if Task A is moved further than Task B's End Date, Task B will be moved in order to retain the dependency (and to end at the same time). Moving Task B to the left further than Task A's End Date will automatically move Task B's end at the same time as the end of Task A. Moving Task B to the right has no effect on Task A.

Setting up the Lag Time and Deleting Dependency

By clicking on the 'Link Arrow' we are given a possibility to set the Lag Time which is a minimal number of days between tasks, before the dependency rules will be manifested. If the minimal required amount of days is not met by the tasks' Start and End Dates, they will get rescheduled. 

Please note that lag time is the minimum distance, not the exact required one. If we set a lag time of 1 day for tasks that have 3 days between them, nothing will happen - the gap will not shorten to a single day as it still meets the initial requirement.

As we can see above, this menu not only allows us to set a lag time, but also to 'Delete' a link and/or change the Type of dependency to a new - desired one from a drop-down menu at the very bottom of the pop-up.

Loops and Cross-Program Relationship

In Jira, issue links have no effect over the environment's structure and behaviour. That means we can create any type of dependency between them in various combinations. Even a type of dependency that would make no logical sense or would end up in a paradox can exist in the vanilla Jira environment. In our application though, links have a direct effect on the Start and End Dates, so some combinations of links will not be allowed. This concerns what we call "loops". Let's imagine the following type of inter-dependency:

Task A (Ends) → (Starts) Task B
Task B (Ends) → (Starts) Task A

Such a combination of links on these 2 tasks would result in Task A rescheduling Task B, Task B rescheduling Task A, Task A rescheduling Task B, and so on and so forth. This sort of paradox would create an infinitive number of data re-calculation and could possibly crush our environment. This is why our app will not allow it and will return a Warning.

Loops are very easy to detect if tasks belong to a single Program. However, at times we may meet a situation when the same task is a component of various - multiple Programs, each belonging to a different user. We could cause a change that might reschedule their whole Gantt, sometimes even not realizing it (i.e. once permissions to their Program were not granted to us). 

Task Structure Adjustment

There's a number of ways we can adjust the structure of tasks on our Gantt chart and Gantt's WBS. One of our app's core features - its capability to alter tasks' values by moving them around with simple drag and drop mechanics can be used not only in the sphere of our Gantt's diagram, but also on the Gantt's WBS. This way we can adjust the allocation of tasks in the Hierarchy.

The other method is the method of manual indentation and is also very useful once we set our desired Hierarchy per Program and want to adjust it. We need to remember that our 'Hierarchy Adjustment Arrows' work per Program only (meaning they are not actually reflected in Jira) and can be easily overwritten whenever we will make Hierarchy adjustments in our Program Configuration.

Up and down arrows simply move a task inside its current node. For instance, if a task is a subtask of an Epic, we will only be able to move it up and down inside this Epic's tier.

Left and right arrows are responsible for indentations and outdentations, meaning to shift tasks into Sub-Tasks or parents of ones that follow.

As a result, if we would like a Sub-Task to go under a different parent, we need to follow this procedure:

  1. Outdent the task, so it moves to the same tier as its previous parent.
  2. Move the task down so it's just below the new parent.
  3. Indent the task.

Task Context Menu

As we will learn in articles on View and Data Filtering and Data Display and Editing on the Gantt chart, many task based data and display operations can be applied globally (for each task in the whole Program / Gantt). Yet there are cases in which we would like to apply such adjustments for each task separately. This is what Task Context Menu is for. It allows us to create its Baselines or shift it to a Milestone, display its Details or manually change its Color, apply its Mode and desired Sorting method.

Other Task Operations - Related Articles

This article is just an introduction to basic concepts of Tasks and operations that we perform within the Gantt diagram on the daily basis. There's a much wider selection of actions which can be performed on Tasks (both Jira and Artficial) on Gantt chart along with its Gantt's WBS, though due to the nature of these actions - either Data Filtering and View or Display Edition related, they have been elaborated in other articles dedicated to those aspects. 


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